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Introduction and advantages of electric arc furnace

Views: 11     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-11-07      Origin: Site

An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a metallurgical furnace that uses an electric arc to heat materials,mainly metallic ore or scrap metal from steel production. Metallurgical furnaces can be heated with different heat sources,but in an EAF,unlike an induction steel furnace,the charged metal is heated directly by an electric arc,with an electric current flowing from the furnace's terminals through the charged material. 

The furnace consists of the following basic parts:

  • Shell

  • Furnace

  • Retractable roof Electric arc furnace

Electrode holder,electrical system,furnace transformer and tilt table are separate from furnace.

An electric arc furnace is a furnace that uses very high electrical current to heat materials.The rod (made of graphite,which has semiconducting properties) heats up and creates a plasma that can channel the molten metal.Although an electric arc furnace (EAF) relies on a lot of electricity,it is considerably cheaper,in some cases cheaper than using carbon fuels Please be aware that this is very dangerous and should be extremely careful and aware which are likely to be life threatening.

How does an electric arc furnace make steel?

The electric arc furnace steelmaking process is very simple and consists of a few basic steps:

1. Furnace charging

2. The roof is lowered and closed

3. The electrode is lowered onto the material,creating an arc between the material and the electrode

4. The arc is fired at a lower voltage,which is then increased to speed up the melting process.The arc heats the material to a molten state

5. During melting,the refining process starts with the oxidation of certain elements

Operation

Scrap is loaded into baskets.The heavy melt is placed on top of a thin layer of protective chips with more chips on top.The scrap basket is then taken to the melting shop,the roof is lifted from the furnace,and the scrap in the basket is loaded into the furnace.After charging,the furnace top swings back and melting begins.Electrodes are lowered onto the scrap,creating an arc,which is then set to drill into the debris layer on top of the furnace.To speed up the process, metal charges,calcined lime, slag formation and spar are added to the basket.

Once heated,the melting process begins.Electrodes are lowered into the scrap to create an arc under low pressure conditions.Once the arc is formed,the voltage is increased to speed up the melting process,simultaneously oxidizing the manganese,silicon and carbon.As melting continues, the refining process begins.

Electric arc furnaces have many advantages

  • Energy  Efficiency

  • This method is mainly adopted by steelmaking companies around the world,which means a large consumption of graphite electrodes,which greatly reduces the energy required for steelmaking.Unlike conventional ore steelmaking,the EAF makes steel from 100% scrap metal; therefore,it is more energy efficient.

  • Flexibility

  • The EAF process can be quickly scaled up or down as needed and is not as easy to adjust to production needs as blast furnaces.Although the main  feedstock for the EAF is steel scrap,direct reduced iron or molten iron from the blast furnace can also be used to feed the EAF.

  • Security Enhancement

  • The ability to control the hook using the remote control eliminates the risk of operators or personnel getting too close to the furnace and operating the process from a safe distance.

  •  Better health and well-being due to automated processes,no exposure to toxic radioactive materials,etc.

  • Increase Productivity

  •  The use of the remote control simplifies the engagement and release of the electrode lift point and the automatic hook.

  • Minimize the risk of injury or death with automatic engagement and release.Avoid accidents,do not affect the manufacturing process and reduce production time.




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